History is witness to the fact that the Bani Umayyah were hell bent on promoting a wave of politics and forcing people into thinking that they were the rightful successors of Holy Prophet (peace be on him and his progeny) (this, for several reasons, was later changed from Wilayat to Caliphate). The magic of deceit and politics, riding on money and power, showed new miracles every day. As a result, Bani Umayyah began playing and manipulating with the principles of religion. The politics engulfed their minds so much so that if Friday prayers were recited on Wednesday, none objected to it.
To achieve this nefarious objective, Bani Umayyah resorted to fabrication of Ahadees (traditions) and those who practised the “business of religion” started the process of inventing false traditions. Muawiyah used these fabricators and incited them to cook up stories and traditions and in return, conferred on them the titles of Traditionalists and showered governmental perks and benefits upon them.
Lays bin Saad narrates that it was Muawiyah who initiated false accounts of certain people and appointed a person who after the morning prayers would praise Allah the Almighty, bless the Holy Prophet (peace be on him and his progeny) and after that pray for the Caliph, his family, his army and curse the enemies of the Caliph and the polytheists.
(Fajr al-Islam, 158-160 taken from Jehaad al-Husain, pg. 228)
Due to these institutions of fabricated stories and traditions, people started believing in the caliphate of Bani Umayyah and considered revolting against them as unlawful even if they were outside the domain of religion. They thus justified their rule. These institutions of fabrications did their job as a result of which people accepted the rule of Bani Umayyah notwithstanding their oppressive nature.
The same hypocritical mask of Bani Umayyah was seen in Karbala also. When Umar ibn Alhajjaj Zubaidi who was among the commanders of the Bani Umayyah in Karbala saw some of the people going towards Imam Husain (peace be on him) and fighting from his side, he said to them:
“O people of Kufa, obey your caliph and stay in your ranks and do not hesitate to kill the one who has deviated from religion.
(Tabari, vol. 4, pg. 221)
Many such incidences are recorded by historians. Also many traditions point out to the deceit and cunningness of Bani Umayyah so much so that people were led to believe that fighting against Imam Husain (peace be on him) was a religious obligation and also considered Yazid (may Allah curse him) as their Imam and Imam Husain (peace be on him) a traitor (God forbid).
Were this impact of Bani Umayyah, with its growing intensity, to spill over other aspects of the world, it would have percolated down to the minds of the people without any opposition and had someone not exposed the satanic disposition of Bani Umayyah, all efforts to terminate them and guide the righteous people would bear no fruit.
With the passage of time the belief of the people on the rule of Bani Umayyah strengthened so much that had it continued to spread in all sections of the society without any resistance, had none opposed it from any quarter, had they been not exposed, it would have gained ground and all efforts to arrest it would be in vain.
Hence if we glance through the events in history, we realize that to expose the reality of Bani Umayyah, a great personality, the axis of religion was called for. This could be none other than Imam Husain son of Hazrat Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be on them).
The revolution of Imam Husain (peace be on him) exposed Bani Umayyah before the people. The satanic oppressions of Bani Umayyah on Imam Husain (peace be on him) and his faithful companions laid bare the true irreligious and anti-Islamic nature of Bani Umayyah.
The Bani Umayyah not only martyred Imam Husain (peace be on him) but other sons of Ameerul Momeneen Ali (peace be on him) as well as of Janab Aqeel and many of the exemplary companions of Holy Prophet (peace be on him and his progeny). The Bani Umayyah set an example of highest level of oppression in the history of mankind. They first cut off the water supply to Imam Husain (peace be on him) and his companions, then martyred them. They not only martyred them but trampled their dead bodies under horses. The women folk of the family of Holy Prophet (peace be on him and his progeny) were imprisoned and their veils were snatched from them. The severed heads of the martyrs were raised on spears and taken from Karbala to Kufa and then to Damascus. These demonic and horrific oppressions on the family of the Prophet were instrumental in bringing out the real face of the Bani Ummayah and thoroughly exposed their irreligiousness and inhumanity.
Moreover Imam Husain (peace be on him) exposed and humiliated them at every step, for instance Imam was not willing to initiate the war. He also refused to go to Ibne Ziyad with the commander of the army Hur ibne Riyahee.
I would like to draw the attention of the esteemed readers to one more point that led to the ultimate downfall of Bani Umayyah. This was the feeling of guilt and remorse by the people.
Here we feel it necessary to momentarily pause and explain to our esteemed readers about the realization of guilt and the reasons behind it. All human beings bear a light with their conscious which when illuminates in the backdrop of humanity, becomes the source of realisation of his guilt.
Those who could reach to help Imam Husain (peace be on him) but did not do so felt the realization of this guilt, their conscious pricked them resulting in a strong reproach in them.
The realization of the sin is based on two factors:
1. Preparing the sinner to see the severity of his sin
2. Avenging those who led him to this crime
The realization of this sin was the main force that stoke the fire of hatred and enmity of the people towards the Bani Umayyah and hence after the event of Karbala, Bani Umayyah had to face many a rebellion based on the revolution of Imam Husain (peace be on him) or the guilt that they did not reach out to help Imam (peace be on him) and to take revenge from Bani Umayyah.
This became the reason for several revolts and the tragic events of Karbala stirred the emotions of the dormant masses and woke them from negligence. It removed individual and collective obstacles. The pseudo-religious cloak of Bani Umayyah was torn and their ignorance, irreligiousness, idol worship and brutal rule was exposed. As a result the first move from Kufa was the mobilization of the Tabaeen of which Mukhtar and Sulaiman ibn Surd Khuzai were the foremost.
(Tareekh Tabari, vol. 4, pg. 426-473)
The revolt then proceeded to Madinah wherein the focus was to overthrow the oppressive rule of Bani Umayyah. In this revolt many events took place the most prominent amongst them was the martyrdom of Imam Husain (peace be on him).
The martyrdom of Imam Husain (peace be on him) led to many revolts some of which were in the way of Allah i.e. to propagate the mission of Imam Husain (peace be on him) while others aimed at political motives using the banner of Imam Husain (peace be on him) at the forefront. For instance the revolt of Janabe Mukhtar-e- Saqafi and Zaid ibne Ali was purely for avenging the martyrdom of Imam Husain (peace be on him) and bringing forth the causes and reasons for the same. On the other hand the revolt of Abdullah bin Zubair and Ibne Ashath was based on gaining political aims only.
The religion of Islam is a complete way of life based on the actions of Holy Prophet (peace be on him and his progeny) and the orders of the Holy Quran. Holy Prophet (peace be on him and his progeny) and his twelve successors after him, the last of whom is in occultation like the sun behind the clouds, are the protectors of the divine religion. He will rise on divine orders and establish the Islamic code of life. Allah the Almighty has granted respite to those attempting to malign the name of Islam. This respite is an indication that the time allowed to them is nearing its completion. With the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (may Allah hasten his reappearance) the religion of Allah will be established, the orders of the Holy Quran will be put into effect and the bright sun of Imamat will rise. We all should await this.
The same has been said in the couplet of Marhoom-e-Safi
WOH JALD AAYENGE YAA DER MEIN KHUDA JAANE
MEIN GUL BICHAAUN YAA KALIYAAN BICHAAUN BISTAR PAR
(Whether he comes early or late only Allah knows should I spread flowers or buds on the bed.)